There are aspects of the “art of teaching” I have long taken for granted, but are apparently no longer taught in preservice education programs. Classroom centers is one such critical topic. Since I cannot find the seminal book(s) or papers on the importance or creation of centers, I created the following document for the school I work for.
Thoughts on Classroom Centers (v 1.0)
Gary S. Stager, Ph.D.
Special Assistant to the Head of School for Innovation
The Willows Community School
THE CENTER APPROACH
Centers are clearly delineated areas in the classroom where students may work independently or in small groups on purposeful activities without direct or persistent teacher involvement. Centers may be designed by the teacher or co-constructed with students. Deliberate materials are presented in a center to scaffold a child’s learning, or nurture creativity. Such materials may be utilized in both a predictable and serendipitous fashion. Centers afford students with the necessary time to take pride in one’s work, overcome a significant challenge, develop a new talent, or deepen a relationship (with a person or knowledge domain).
“Learning as a process of individual and group construction –
Each child, like each human being, is an active constructor of knowledge, competencies, and autonomies, by means of original learning processes that take shape with methods and times that are unique and subjective in the relationship with peers, adults, and the environment.
The learning process is fostered by strategies of research, comparison of ideas, and co-participation. It makes use of creativity, uncertainty, intuition, [and] curiosity. It is generated in play and in the aesthetic, emotional, relational, and spiritual dimensions, which it interweaves and nurtures. It is based on the centrality of motivation and the pleasures of learning.” (Reggio Children, 2010)
- Minimize direct instruction (lecture)
- Recognize that students learn differently and at different rates
- Reduce coercion
- Honor student choice
- Increase student agency
- Make classrooms more democratic
- Enhance student creativity
- Build student competence and independence
- Employ more flexible uses of instructional time
- Inspire cross-curricular explorations
- Develop the classroom as the “3rd teacher”
- Encourage more student-centered classrooms
- Respect the centrality of the learner in learning
- Create more productive contexts for learning
- Supports the Hundred Languages of Children
- Match a child’s remarkable capacity for intensity
- Provide opportunities for teachers to sit alongside students
- Make learning visible
- Shift the teacher’s role from lecturer to research responsible for making private thinking public – invisible thinking visible
- Team teaching in the best collegial sense
- Increased self-reliance, self-regulation and personal responsibility
- Shift in agency from teacher to student
- Development of project-management skill
- Supports project-based learning
- Opportunities for “flow” experiences (Csikszentmihalyi, 1991)
- Intensify learning experiences
- Encourage focus
- Expand opportunities for:
- Creative play
- Informal collaboration
- Appropriation of powerful ideas
- Acknowledges the curious, creative, social and active nature of children
- Matches the individual attention spans of students
- Reduces boredom
- Increases student engagement
- Teachers get to know each student (better)
- Recognition that quality work takes time
- Acknowledges the centrality of the learner in knowledge construction
- Thoughtful documentation of student learning by teachers
- Minimize misbehavior
A place for experimentation
An area where a long-term project may be undertaken and securely stored
A place where students play games that helps develop specific concepts, logic, or problem-solving skills
An art center where children sculpt, paint, animate, draw, etc… with sufficient light and appropriate materials.
Creative play center
- Dress-up area
- Puppet theatre
- Blocks/LEGO/Construction with found materials
A comfortable well-lit area, stocked with a variety of high-interest reading material
The class pet to observe, care for, and in some cases, play with
Classroom garden to care for
A setting where students can listen to recordings or watch a video with headphones
- Learning centers should neither be chores or Stations of the Cross. Flexibility, student choice, and actions that do not disturb classmates are hallmarks of the centers approach.
- Centers should not be managed with a stopwatch. “Fairness” is not a priority, except if there are scarce materials.
- Learning center use should not be used as a reward or punishment.
TIPS FOR PREPARING A CENTER
- Create clear and concise prompts, questions to ponder or project ideas. Place these prompts on index cards, a single sheet of paper, or in a binder.
- Less is more! Do not clutter up a center or overwhelm a learner with too many options.
- Keep prompts simple and not overly prescriptive. Allow for serendipity.
- Rotate out “stale” materials – things that students no longer show interest in
- Assign classroom roles for tidying-up centers
- Place louder centers away from quieter areas in the classroom.
- Provide safety materials and instruction when appropriate at centers
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1991). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience (Reprint ed.). NY: Harper Perennial.
Reggio Children. (2010). Indications – Preschools and infant toddler centres of the municipality of Reggio Emilia (L. Morrow, Trans.). In Infant toddler centers and preschools of Instituzione of the municipality of Reggio Emilia (Ed.): Reggio Children.
As far too many American schools become obsessed with time-on-task, achievement, and beating the rest of the world in long division, play, recess, and even socializing over lunch fade into memory. Kids in schools lucky enough to still have art, drama, or music programs often have to wake before dawn to attend “zero period” or stay at school until dark, followed by an obscene quantity of homework. Stress levels are up, childhood obesity increases, school shootings have become commonplace and somehow still, the Dickensian shopkeepers tyrannically shaping education policy wish to extend the school day, lengthen the school year, and speed up the conveyor belt they mistakenly confuse for a learning environment.
Yelling, screaming, running
Turning tree branches into magic wands
Flopping on the ground (“because you’re supposed to”)
Trying on a cape
Wearing funny glasses
Studying a leaf
Cuddling a stuffed stingray
Driving an invisible car
Shouting pow pow pow while waving an imaginary weapon
Tickling a furby
Dressing like a fairy princess
Making new friends
Wrapping a scarf around your friend’s face
Kicking a pal down a slide Shooting hoops
Hissing at classmates
Smooshing a flower into your hand and then licking the resulting pollen
Cleaning up litter
Four out of five kindergarteners agree.
Foam blocks suck.
Yesterday, I received a copy of Playing for Keeps: Life and Learning on a Public School Playground, co-authored by Deborah Meier, Brenda S. Engel and Beth Taylor. In the spirit of Vivian Paley and Jonathan Kozol (both of whom blurbed the book), Meier and co. give voice to the spontaneous voice and learning of children in their care.
Two particular passages jumped out at me:
In the process of turning schools into competitive institutions, “racing to the top,” we end up threatening the spirit of childhood. Because of our own limited histories and the generally accepted language around schooling – “grade level,” “ahead or behind,” “competent or deficient,” “differentiated learning,” – we begin to lose sight of what education means. These become the only words for describing children in school – children like those we observe playing in this book. “Knowing children well” becomes a matter of looking at test data. (page 107)
Leaving no time or space in education for children’s “playful” efforts to make sense of the world risks the future of only of poetry and science, but also our political liberties. The habits of playfulness in early life are the essential foundations upon which we can build a K-12 education that would foster, nourish and sustain the apparent “absurdity” of democracy. (page 68)
Check out all of Debroah Meier’s stunning books on teaching, learning and school reform here at the Constructivist Consortium Bookstore. If you haven’t already read the classics, In Schools We Trust or The Power of Their Ideas, put them at the top of your summer reading pile.
While we’re on the subject of summer, there is still time to register for Constructing Modern Knowledge, July 12-15, 2010 in picturesque Manchester, NH. There you can actually work, play and learn with Deborah Meier, Aflie Kohn, James Loewen, Peter Reynolds and a bunch of educational computing pioneers!
It’s Superbowl Sunday (Go Saints!) and I just saw the first of what will undoubtedly be many public service announcements for Play 60, the NFL’s campaign to encourage play.
Are there children averse to play? Seems to me that play is the natural state of children.
So, who stole play? Is a play-eating virus ravishing our nation?
The real enemies of play are the folks who set school policy from the President of the United States down to some local school principals. That’s who is responsible for turning classrooms into joyless test-prep sweatshops free of recess, blocks, dress-up corners and increasingly, even physical education.
For too many American public school students, playing 60 minutes per day is as big of fantasy as a Detroit Lions Superbowl threepeat.
Consider my nephews, named “94th Percentile” and “Exceeds Expectations.” They live in a community 40 miles from New York City. There has NEVER been recess in their elementary or middle schools. After a rushed 20-minute silent lunch ( school is about socialization, right?), the kids are forced to participate in some forced march, called “Walk/Run.”
Due to a 45-minute commute. 94th and Exceeds board the school bus at 7 AM and return home at dusk. They then rush through a meal with their parents, followed by an hour or two of their parents yelling at them to complete their meaningless homework and then bedtime. Sometimes, there’s even time for a shower.
What there isn’t time for is play – or trumpet practice, bike riding, answering their uncle’s email, reading a book, karate or Scouts.
Playing for 60 minutes per day is a swell idea. I think kids should play as much as possible – all sorts of play, not just sports. That’s how kids learn, create, develop interpersonal skills and become productive citizens. The NFL Play60 campaign targets childhood obesity. Could school violence and the epidemic of attention deficit disorders possibly be rooted in a lack of play?
It’s also ironic that the NFL is combatting childhood obesity while simultaneously encouraging teenagers to weigh 300 pounds and sign 13 year-olds to USC football.
In Dumbing Us Down: The Hidden Curriculum of Compulsory Schooling, John Taylor Gatto reminds us that one of the lessons of school is surveillance:
I teach children that they are being watched. I keep each student under constant surveillance and so do my colleagues. There are no private spaces for children; there is no private time. Class change lasts 300 seconds to keep promiscuous fraternization at low levels. Students are encouraged to tattle on each other, even to tattle on their parents. Of course I encourage parents to file their own child’s waywardness, too.
I assign “homework” so that this surveillance extends into the household, where students might otherwise use the time to learn something unauthorized, perhaps from a father or mother, or by apprenticing to some wiser person in the neighborhood. (Gatto, 1991)
We would not have to “Save the Music” or create a charity advocating childhood play if we adults did the right thing and cared for children! Why don’t we try that at least 60 minutes per day?
- Read the February 1, 2010 New York Times Op-Ed article. Playing to Learn
- Read Susan Ohanian’s book, What Happened to Recess and Why are Our Children Struggling at Kindergarten?