Constructing Modern Knowledge 2012 celebrates computing, creativity and children by adding blog, YouTube and MakerFaire sensation, Super Awesome Sylvia as a guest speaker and faculty member at CMK 2012, July 9-12, 2012 in Manchester, New Hampshire.

Sylvia’s enthusiasm, curiosity, ingenuity and passion have inspired hundreds of thousands of children and adults to tinker with cutting-edge technology. Her videos share wisdom and  whimsical ideas for projects. This pint-sized pedagogue also teachers viewers about art, science, engineering and technology with remarkable clarity.

It will be super awesome to have Super Awesome Sylvia as a co-learner at CMK 2012! I can’t wait to see what we make together!


Dr. Lilian Katz, a pioneer in the “project approach” to teaching and learning, will be a guest speaker at Constructing Modern Knowledge 2012, July 9-12, 2012 in Manchester, NH!

Dr. Katz’s expertise in early childhood education learning through project work will make a significant contribution to CMK 2012. Register today and learn with a world-class faculty and amazing guest speakers, award-winning filmmaker Casey Neistat; MIT Media Lab professor and Lilypad Arudino inventor, Dr. Leah Beuchley; Mark Frauenfelder, Editor-in-Chief of Make Magazine, Founder of and author of Made By Hand: Searching for Meaning in a Throwaway World and Super Awesome Sylvia.

About Lilian Katz, Ph.D.
Lilian G. Katz is Professor Emerita of Early Childhood Education at the University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign) where she is currently on the staff of the Clearinghouse on Early Education and Parenting (CEEP). Dr. Katz is a Past President of the National Association for the Education of Young Children, and the first President of the Illinois Association for the Education of Young Children. Dr. Katz is currently Editor of the first on-line peer reviewed trilingual early childhood journal, Early Childhood Research & Practice (English, Spanish & Chinese).

Professor Katz is author of more than one hundred publications including articles, chapters, books, pamphlets, etc., about early childhood education, teacher education, child development, and parenting of young children.  For thirteen years she wrote a monthly column for parents of three- and four-year-olds for Parents Magazine.

Dr. Katz was founding editor of the Early Childhood Research Quarterly, and served as its Editor-in-Chief during its first six years.  Her most recent book (co-authored with J. H. Helm) is Young Investigators: The Project Approach in the Early Years.  Her book titled Talks with Teachers of Young Children (1995) is a collection of her best known early essays and several more recent ones. In 2000 she published the second edition of Engaging Children’s Minds: The Project Approach, co-authored with S. C. Chard. It has been translated into several languages, as have many of her other works.

Dr. Katz has lectured in all 50 US states and in 55 other countries. She has held visiting posts at universities in Australia, Canada, England, Germany, India, Israel, the West Indies (Barbados campus) and many parts of the USA.  Dr. Katz is the recipient of many honors, including two Fulbright Awards (India & New Zealand), an Honorary Doctor of Letters degree (DLitt.) from Whittier College, Whittier, California and an honorary Doctor of Philosophy from the University of Goteborg in Sweden. In 1997 she served as Nehru Professor at the University of Baroda in India.

Professor Katz, was born and raised in England and became a US citizen in 1953. She received her B.A. degree cum laude from San Francisco State University (1964) and her Ph.D. in Psychological Studies & Education from Stanford University in 1968. She and her late husband Boris Katz have three grown children, five grandsons and one granddaughter.


While some people are excited about using computers to teach traditional subjects, perhaps with greater comprehension or efficiency, my work is driven by the exciting realization that computers make it possible for young people to learn and do new things in new ways unimaginable just a few years ago. Over nearly thirty years of helping schools around the world use computers to create more productive contexts for learning, I have observed many myths that derail progress.

Scarcity is a major obstacle to use
Most children in non 1:1 schools use a computer less than an hour per week and we then have the audacity to question whether “computers work” in school. Teachers have little incentive to develop modern teaching techniques when computers are too scarce. Twenty-one years since I led PD in the world’s first laptop schools, the value of 1:1 computing has long been settled.

Technology is not neutral
All technology shapes behavior. Our tech investments tend to grant agency to the system, teachers or learners. I favor laptops because they put maximum power in the hands of the students we are employed to serve.

Computer science is a critical curricular topic
Although we should make computers transparent across the curriculum, too many schools behave as if computers have had zero impact on society and that children should have limited knowledge of how technology central to their lives works. Parents want their kids to make Bill Gates’ money without learning to program.

Computer science is a critically important discipline that all students should be exposed to and some children should study in depth. The problem solving skills developed serve almost any career. Fundamentally, access to computer science experiences allows children to program the computer, rather than the computer programming the child. (Seymour Papert)

90% of school is language arts
And 98% of educational computing is language arts. OK, I made up those statistics, but information access and communication are the low-hanging fruit representing only a tiny fraction of what it means to be educated. S.T.E.M. subjects and the arts can be made accessible and transformed by computing.

All “devices” are not created equal
Electricity alone doesn’t bestow sufficient educational value. What was the last time you walked into an Apple Store or electronics retailer and said, “I’d like to buy a device please?” We only use the term, “device,” when we’re cutting corners for students.

And the children shall lead
Schools should consider powerful models like Generation YES ( that channel student technology expertise in service to their school or community through teacher professional development, technical support and peer mentoring.

The network is not the computer
There are a million and one fantastic things that students can make with a computer even without Internet access.

If you can make things with computers…
…then you can make more interesting things (Papert). Computers afford opportunities for a greater range of projects to be possible than ever before. Since knowledge is a consequence of experience, interdisciplinary personally meaningful projects create the learning opportunities and memories students need to succeed.

You might begin reconsidering your network personnel budgets
For how many years will you employ network personnel after every student and teacher has Internet access on the person in the form of cell phones or laptops with built-in Wi-Max? In many cases, overzealous network employees turn $1,000 computers into $100 sculpture by the time they finish restricting what may done with them.

Younger kids need better computers
Many schools make the mistake of sending hand-me-down computers to the primary grades when those children benefit most from new multimedia features and processing power. At the same time, the narrow range of assignments given to high school students often requires a whole lot less computational power.

Don’t waste your best teachers on administrative computing
It’s common sense to distinguish between instructional and administrative computing. Wasting talented teachers on attendance or payroll systems is foolhardy.

Computing can be a catalyst for school improvement
When I mentor teachers in classrooms, they not only realize the capabilities of their students through their screens and eyes, but have a context for manipulative use, literature integration, project-based learning, new forms of assessment, learner-centered pedagogical practices, problem solving, collaboration and other broader educational objectives that may have eluded your school.

Internationally renowned educator, speaker & consultant Gary Stager, Ph.D. is Executive Director of the Constructivist Consortium and the Constructing Modern Knowledge Summer Institute. He may be reached at

These video tutorials should help you get started learning with MicroWorlds EX or MicroWorlds EX Robotics! You may download them and watch them as often as you wish.

These screencasts (video clips) were created to walk you through basic techniques you will need to create an original “Snac Man Jr.” game (it’s like Pac Man without lawyers).

The MicroWorlds EX Project book has a tutorial in creating a similar game, but I find that it is unnecessarily complex, despite having written it myself.

I can now teach beginners to design their very own video game with very little instruction.

Continue practicing using the MicroWorlds EX tools and turtle animation techniques before moving on to the main event.

Snac Man Jr!

Now you will learn how to begin designing your very own Snac Man Jr. video game!

Stop the video as necessary and try to imitate the actions described.

The learning adventure continues…

Extension activities

What would you like to add to your game? How might you improve it?

Here are some suggestions:

  • Different prizes
  • Predators
  • Power pellets
  • Additional levels
  • Acceleration
  • Temporary invisibility (makes it hard for ghosts to eat you)
  • Better graphics
  • More sound effects

Additional Resources

You may hear, meet or work with Dr. Gary Stager at the following events. For more information on working with Gary, see this site. You may also download The Stager Difference or subscribe to my occasional newsletter.

Upcoming events:

Briefing with School Trustees
The Willows Community School
Culver City, CA
September 17

Community Consensus Building & Visioning with Fielding-Nair International
Billing, Montana Public Schools
September 20-22

Chadwick International School
Songdo, South Korea
September 26 – October 14

Children, Creativity and Computing
Seoul, South Korea
October 5

Constructivist Celebration
Des Moines, IA
October 16

Keynote Speaker
ITEC Conference
Des Moines, IA
October 17

Parent Education Presentation
The Willows Community School
Culver City, CA
October 18

Featured Speaker
Coalition of Essential Schools Annual Fall Forum
Providence, RI
November 10-12

Workshop for School Administrators
Orange County Archdioscese
November 15 [postponed]

Keynote Address
Technology And Leadership Keynote Series
November 17

Invent to Learn
Preconference full-day workshop
NYSCATE – Rochester, NY
November 20

NYSCATE Annual Conference
Rochester, NY
November 21 – 23

Educon 2.4
Philadelphia, PA
January 27-29, 2012

Puerto Rico
with Fielding-Nair International
February 10, 2012

Keynote Speaker
PETE&C Conference
Hershey, PA
February 13-15, 2012

American Association of School Administrators National Conference on Education
Houston, TX
February 16-19, 2012

The Kincaid School
Houston, TX
February 17

Featured Speaker
ASB Unplugged – International 1:1 Learning Conference
Mumbai, India
February 22-25, 2012

COSN Annual Conference
Washington, D.C.
March 5-7

National Association of Secondary School Principals Conference
Tampa, FL
March 8-10

Opportunities for PD, workshops, consulting and lectures in Australia and New Zealand from mid-March thru Easter. Contact Gary for more information!

Keynote Speaker
INSPIRE INNOVATE: Think Digitally, Teach Creatively and Transform Pedagogy ICT Conference
Sydney, Australia
March 28-29

National School Boards Association Annual Conference
The Next Revolution in 1:1 Computing – Laptops in the Primary Grades
Boston, MA
April 22, 2012

Keynote Speaker
Association of Maryland and D.C. Independent Schools Technology Retreat
St Michael’s, Maryland
April 29 – May 1

Keynote Speaker
EduTECH Conference
Powerful Ideas and the The Case for Computing
Sydney, Australia
May 30-31

Keynote Speaker
Invent to Know Workshop by The Constructivist Consortium
San Diego, CA
June 24

Spotlight Speaker
Gary’s 25th NECC/ISTE Conference
San Diego, CA
June 24-27

Constructing Modern Knowledge Summer Institute
Manchester, NH
July 8-12


Just minutes after posting my article, “BYOD (Bring your own device) – Worst Idea of the 21st Century?,” I received an email message from my nephew saying that he needs to raise $1,300 for the high school orchestra trip next spring.

As a result, he would like me to buy some crap I don’t need so the crap-selling company can make a whole bunch of profit off the backs of school children. Ironically, the school has yet to tell the kids where they will be going. Sell crap first, ask questions later!

If you need some useless crap or are just feeling generous, my nephew and I humbly thank you. His student ID = vth8435 if you need it.

With much gratitude,

Doctor Uncle Gary

Help send my nephew Mathew on his band trip via PayPal

In 1990, I began helping schools across the globe realize the transformational learning potential of a laptop for every child. From the start there was a recognition of the certain inevitability that every student would own their a personal mobile personal computer in the near future, whether school provided it or not.  Twenty-one years later, way too few students have a personal computer and the very issue seems to become more controversial with each passing day.

Schools and school districts who have come to the personal computing party decades late now have conjured a cheap less-empowering way to produce an illusion of modernity. They call it “Bring Your Own Device” (BYOD) or “Bring Your Own Technology” (BYOT) and it’s a terribly reckless idea for the following reasons.

BYOD enshrines inequity
The only way to guarantee equitable educational experiences is for each student to have access to the same materials and learning opportunities. BYOD leaves this to chance with more affluent students continuing to have an unfair advantage over their classmates. This is particularly problematic in a society with growing economic disparity.

Real people don’t want a device
What was the last time you walked into a Best Buy or Apple Store and asked the clerk, “I’d like to buy a device please?” Nobody does that. You buy a computer. A device is something you buy for other people’s children when you’re pinching pennies or have too low expectations for children.

BYOD simplistically creates false equivalencies between any object that happens to use electricity
Repeat after me! Cell phones are not computers! They may both contain microprocessors and batteries, but as of today, their functionality is quite different.

It is miseducative to make important educational decisions based on price!
A wise mentor of me told me long ago that important educational decisions should not be based on price. It’s immoral, ineffective and imprudent. Who is to blame when BYOD fails to realize its potential or creates unforeseen problems. For forty years, visionary educators like Alan Kay, Seymour Papert, David Thornburg, David Loader and countless others have demonstrated that the cost of providing every child with a powerful personal computer (laptop) is between 2-5% of the cost of schooling. These costs have fallen in recent years. Plenty of schools and districts have reordered priorities to provide each student with a personal laptop. Doing the right thing is a matter or priorities and leadership, not price point.

BYOD narrows the learning process to information access and chat (when students aren’t being punished for either)
Information access, note-taking and communication (presenting, sharing, publishing) are the low-hanging fruit of education and represent the tiniest fraction of what it means to learn. Looking up the answers to someone else’s questions online in order to write an essay or make a PowerPoint presentation reinforces the status quo at best while failing to unlock for children the wondrous opportunities provided by computational thinking.

BYOD increases teacher anxiety
Schools have largely failed to inspire teachers to use computers in even pedestrian ways after three decades of attempts. A cornucopia of various devices in the classroom will only amplify teacher anxiety and reduce use.

BYOD diminishes the otherwise enormous potential of educational computing to the weakest “device” in the room
Some educators are excited by using “technology” to teach things we have always wanted kids to learn, perhaps in a more efficient fashion. My work is driven by an understanding that the computer is an intellectual laboratory and vehicle for self-expression that makes it possible for children to learn and do things in ways and domains unthinkable or unavailable just a few years ago. Such empowerment is impaired when educational practice needs to be limited to the functionality of the least powerful device.

BYOD contributes to the growing narrative that education is not worthy of investment
We reap what we sow, educators who placate those who slash budgets by making unreasonable compromises at the expense of children, will find ever fewer resources during the next funding cycle. Education must not be viewed as some competitive, commercial, “every man for himself” enterprise that relies on children to find loose change behind the sofa cushions. Democracy and a high quality educational system requires adequate funding.

Oh yeah, check out the brand new Macbook Pro, iPhone, iPad and high-def video camera being carried by the tech coordinator who decided that students should be happy with whatever hand-me-down devices they might scrounge. Let them eat cell phones!

It takes a special pitch to ask a school or school board to buy one of something for every student. You better make sure you ask for the right “device.” Kids need a personal computer capable of doing anything you imagine they should be able to do, plus leave plenty of room for growth and childlike ingenuity.

Of course teachers should welcome any object, device, book or idea a student brings to class that contributes to the learning process. Every thing a child brings to school in her heart, head or backpack is a potential gift to the learning environment. However, BYOD is bad policy that constrains student creativity, limits learning opportunities and will lead to less support for public education in the future.


Mark Fraunfelder

The Constructing Modern Knowledge 2012 program is shaping up to be better than ever before. In addition to our amazing faculty of edtech pioneers and world-class educators, CMK 2012 features:

Mark Frauenfelder is a writer and illustrator living in Los Angeles. He is Editor-in-Chief of MAKE Magazine, the cofounder of the popular Boing Boing weblog and was an editor at Wired from 1993-1998. He is the author of terrific books, including: Rule the Web: How to Do Anything and Everything on the Internet—Better, Faster, Easier, The Happy Mutant Handbook, Mad Professor: Concoct Extremely Weird Science Projects and his latest, Made By Hand: Searching for Meaning in a Throwaway World. Mark Frauenfelder is at the vanguard of the exploding world of DIY and tinkering. He brings a wealth of expertise as an artist, Web pioneer, author, publisher and parent. Check out the following videos to learn more about his work and the expertise he brings to Constructing Modern Knowledge.

Register for CMK 2012 today!

The Colbert Report Mon – Thurs 11:30pm / 10:30c
Mark Frauenfelder
Colbert Report Full Episodes Political Humor & Satire Blog Video Archive
The Colbert Report Mon – Thurs 11:30pm / 10:30c
Mark Frauenfelder
Colbert Report Full Episodes Political Humor & Satire Blog Video Archive

Read Mark Fraunfelder's latest book!

Register for CMK 2012 today!

As you are probably aware, I have been working in schools with a laptop per child since I led professional development at the world’s first laptop schools back in 1990. Recently, I helped an international school launch 1:1 computing from first through eighth grade.

I believe that less is more, but since software was purchased at once, I recommended the following assortment of constructive creative software for student use across the curriculum.


MicroWorlds EX Robotics

Curriculum areas: Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (S.T.E.M.), Language Arts, Social Studies, Computer Science, Art

MicroWorlds EX is a multimedia version of the Logo programming language. It is designed to have “no threshold and no ceiling” and to be used to create personally meaningful projects and solve problems. MicroWorlds may be used across the curriculum to bring stories to life through art, text, sound and animation; concretize formal mathematical thinking; and creative interactive programs, including video games. MicroWorlds does not publish as nicely on the Web as Scratch, but it holds much more power and functionality as a programming language.

MicroWorlds is a general purpose programming environment that grows with the learner and offers a level of challenge regardless of expertise. Computational thinking and problem solving skills are developed while expressing even artistic ideas with mathematical language.

MicroWorlds EX is based on the work of Seymour Papert, the “father of educational computing,” and colleague of Jean Piaget. In the mid-1960s, Papert began writing about every child having a personal computer. MicroWorlds EX is a software embodiment of his theory of “constructionism.”

MicroWorlds EX contains built-in Help, Vocabulary Reference, Tutorials, Annotated Samples & Techniques.

Recommended Reading



Curriculum areas: Language Arts, Social Studies, Art

Pixie is a graphics and image manipulation program designed for young children. It contains lots of templates and tools to inspire storytelling and visual creativity. Photos and other graphic files may be imported into Pixie for all sorts of manipulation.

The products of Pixie may be exported in a variety of formats for insertion into other programs, including MicroWorlds, ImageBlender, Animation-ish, Pages, Keynote and Comic Life. It is also integrated with the safe and free image library by and for children, Pics4Learning. Pixie is intended for K-2 students at the school.

imageblender icon


Curriculum areas: Language Arts, Social Studies, Art

ImageBlender is a more grown-up graphics and image manipulation program than Pixie, but carefully designed for children (and their teachers). You might think of it as PhotoShop for kids. ImageBlender contains lots of templates and tools to inspire storytelling and visual creativity. Photos and other graphic files may be imported into ImageBlender for all sorts of manipulation.

The products of ImageBlender may be exported in a variety of formats for insertion into other programs, including MicroWorlds, ImageBlender, Animation-ish, Pages, Keynote and Comic Life. It is also integrated with the safe and free image library by and for children, Pics4Learning. Pixie should be used by students from grades 3 and up.

ImageBlender 3 Users Guide

Tech4Learning’s Online Teacher Community – Connect (You should join!)

The Creative Educator Magazine (free)

Pics4Learning free photo library for education




Curriculum areas: Language Arts, Social Studies, Art, Mathematics, Science

Animation-ish is a three-level tutorial based animation program that is deceptively easy to use and incredibly powerful. It was created by best-selling children’s author and illustrator, Peter Reynolds (The Dot, Ish, The North Star, Judy Moody, Stink…).

Be sure to take advantage of the online tutorials and built-in video inspiration!

Complex ideas from across the curriculum and engaging stories may be created with a remarkbale clarity and level of sophistication. Animation-ish, like Pixie and ImageBlender work great with the Wacom drawing tablets.

Animation-ish exports its animations in Flash, QuickTime and other formats that may be published on the web or imported into most of the authoring programs being used by teachers and students.

comic life icon

Comic Life

Curriculum areas: Language Arts & Social Studies

Comic Life allows you to design and print stories and newsletters in the form of comic books or graphic novels. Photos and other static graphics may be imported. This is a great vehicle for supporting the writing process.




Curriculum areas: Social Studies, Mathematics

InspireData is a tool for visualizing data. It’s a hybrid spreadsheet, database and survey tool that allows learners to interrogate data and test hypotheses. It may be used to conduct surveys on one computer or online. Students can then download that data or any tab/comma-delimited file found on the Web for use within InspireData.

InspireData allows for multiple visual representations of data – Venn diagrams, histograms, pie charts, scatter plots and more. Most importantly, its flexibility and ease-of-use allows students to make sense of when one representation would be more suitable than another. InspireData contains mathematical tools for performing calculations and the ability to assemble views of the data for a visual presentation.

The program comes with a large collection of interdisciplinary activities which may stand alone or inspire other inquiry.

  • InspireData Teacher’s Guide, lesson plans & sample databases
  • InspireData web site




Curriculum areas: S.T.E.M.

PicoBlocks is a visual form of the Logo programming language, created by the same person responsible for MicroWorlds EX Robotics, but limited to the control of the Pico Cricket robotics system. The block programming screen metaphor is similar to the way in which LEGO and the Cricket elements are assembled. This is intended for grades 3 and up at the school and may be used to bring a variety of curricular topics to life.

Further Reading

PicoCrickets are based on research from the Lifelong Kindergarten group at the MIT Media Lab. Here are some resources for learning more about the ideas underlying PicoCrickets.

  1. New Pathways into Robotics discusses strategies for educators to broaden participation in robotics activities.
  2. Computer as Paintbrush discusses how new technologies, such as PicoCrickets, can support the development of creative thinking.
microworlds jr. icon

MicroWorlds Jr.

Curriculum areas: Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (S.T.E.M.), Language Arts, Social Studies, Computer Science, Art

MicroWorlds Jr. is a version of MicroWorlds EX, with fully-compatible syntax, but designed for younger children with lower literacy levels than required by MicroWorlds EX.

The reading skills of this school’s students makes this less of an issue, but children without the the problem-solving abilities of their more advanced classmates might do well to have the option of working in MicroWorlds Jr. At younger ages the same projects may be adjusted for use of either environment.

  • MicroWorlds web site
  • MicroWorlds Jr. Teacher’s Guide (PDF)
  • See other MicroWorlds resources above
scratch icon


Curriculum areas: Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (S.T.E.M.), Language Arts, Social Studies, Computer Science, Art

Designed at the MIT Media Lab, Scratch is literally a cousin of MicroWorlds designed by many of the same people. It’s a graphical version of Logo intended for storytelling and video games developed for publication on the World Wide Web. The software is free and does several things brilliantly. However, it lacks the range of possibilities and power afforded by MicroWorlds EX.

The Scratch web site is a rich place for children to share their projects and collaborate with others. Scratch programs may be created in countless languages, yet worked on locally due to ingenius translation abilities within the software.

Scratch is used to program and control the WeDo robotics materials at the lower primary levels. When the WeDo interface is plugged into the laptop, extra programming blocks appear within Scratch.

  • Scratch web site for users – publish, learn and collaborate
  • ScratchED, the online community of Scratch-using educators – ideas, help, collaboration.
  • Add higher-level computer science funcionality to Scratch with Build Your Own Blocks extensions (free).atomiclearning


Curriculum areas: All

Pages is Apple’s very fine word processing and desktop publishing program that should be the basis for all written work at the school. It can also export its files in Microsoft Word and PDF formats.

The best thing about Pages are the built-in templates that turn anyone into a polished graphic designer. The Web is full of free and low-cost additional templates if you wish to expand your output options.

keynote icon


Curriculum areas: All

Keynote is Apple’s visual presentation program filled with more powerful features and simpler functionality than PowerPoint. Keynote includes presenter notes, the ability to record narrration timed to slides, animation, powerful graphic tools and the ability to export in PowerPoint, QuickTime and PDF formats for use in other programs.

You may search the Web for other Keynote templates – free and low-cost.

imovie icon


Curriculum areas: All

Make and edit video for interdisciplinary projects and for sharing information in specific subjects. Exports for publsihing on the Web, CD, DVD and YouTube.

My (admittedly old) collection of podcasting or iMovie/multimedia resources are a place to start for technical and pedagogical information. Of course, you may also use “The Google.”



Curriculum areas: Language Arts, Music

GarageBand is an incredibly powerful tool for recording audio, dubbing audio tracks on movies and loop-based music composition. It may be used anytime audio helps tell a story or set the mood.

My (admittedly old) collection of podcasting or iMovie/multimedia resources are a place to start for technical and pedagogical information. Of course, you may also use “The Google.”

iphoto icon


Curriculum areas: All

iPhoto is the personal image library built into the Mac. It’s where teachers and students should store and touch-up their photographs. However, you’re not just limited to digital photographs. Any image file may be imported or dragged and dropped into iMovie for later retrieval. Garageband, iMovie, Keynote and Pages use this image library for dragging and dropping your images into other multimedia uathoring programs.

iPhoto may also be used to create photo books, picture books, calendars, greeting cards or order professional-quality prints.

For more than basic photo touch-ups, ImageBlender should be used.

numbers icon


Curriculum areas: Mathematics, Social Studies

Numbers is Apple’s spreadsheet for performing calculations and making mathematical forecasts. Spreadsheets are an incredibly powerful tool across the curriculum.

Search the Web for classroom spreadsheet projects or activities. Anything written for Excel or Numbers will work fine. Excel is MicroSoft’s spreadsheet. Numbers exports in Excel format and opens Excel files with ease.

Additional Resources